spines: 0. Head large, completely scaled, including the ventral surfaces of the snout; snout short, narrow, with stout scutes at its tip and lateral angles; mouth small, restricted laterally. Scales with numerous (over 100 in large specimens) short, stout spinules arranged in V-shaped rows. Pyloric caeca short, 10 to 15. Overall color is medium to dark brown; fins generally blackish.