Generally found in large shoals on muddy bottoms in turbid waters, usually on the coastline and estuaries. Also found in rivers (Ref. 3976). Feed on crayfish, small fish, and crabs (Ref. 27121). Considered a nuisance of shore and ski-boat anglers in southern Africa as little else is caught (Ref. 12484). Spines are poisonous and wounds should be treated immediately. Marketed smoked (Ref. 36731).