Lives in clear, flowing streams with abundant cover (Ref. 5259, 44894). Prefers streams with gravel bottoms and abundant snags. Also occurs in lakes and reservoirs (Ref. 5259). Tolerant of slightly brackish conditions (10 p.p.t.) in the tidal reaches of rivers, and a temperature range of 5?-25?C. Home-ranging; remaining within about a 20-30 meters stretch of water throughout the life span (Ref. 44894). Feeds on insects, crustaceans and small fishes (Ref. 5259) ; also on mollusks (Ref. 2156). The spawning season runs from November to January. A popular angling species in the south, but large fish are rare. Highly susceptible to overfishing, due to its home-ranging behavior and low fecundity (Ref. 44894). Flesh is oily and not very good eating.