Found in deep sinkhole lakes (100 m deep or more, e.g. introduced population in Lake Otjikoto, Namibia) with moderately clear water and with water temperatures ranging from 19 to 27?C. Feeds mainly on algae and diatoms (Ref. 6465). Generally congregate, breed and feed from the near-vertical shores. Use narrow shelves for breeding, with established and defended territories, both parents guard and tend eggs. Threatened due to depletion of local groundwater resources and impact of introduced species (Ref. 7248). Individuals tend to display different color patterns ranging from pure black to mottled black and blue, pink and white (Ref. 27829).