Live close to the sea bed over sandy substrates. They normally inhabit depths from the surf zone to 80 m (Ref. 27575), although small catches have been taken from deeper water (Ref. 6335). Juveniles congregate in shallow water where they may be taken by line in large quantities. Feed mainly on crustaceans, amphipods, decapods, mysids and copepods. Juveniles consume mostly copepods (Ref. 6223). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Spawn from October to March in southern New South Wales but spawn in winter in southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales (Ref. 6205).