(total): 6 - 7;
soft rays: 7 - 8;
Vertebrae: 12 - 25. Elongate, cylindrical body. Eye small, 14-24 % of head length. Mental pores in 2 pairs, the first small, rounded, at front of chin, separated by symphysis. Gill rakers long, slender, equal to or slightly longer than gill filaments at angle of arch, 12-14 on lower limb. Dorsal fin with VI to VII spines and 42-44 soft rays, not incised between the two parts. Second anal spine long, stiff, 37-46 % of head length; the last dorsal, second anal, pectoral and pelvic spines progressively thicker with age or size. Scales cycloid (smooth) on head, ctenoid (rough to touch) on body. Swim bladder carrot-shaped, with 1 pair of tube-like appendages arising at the anterior end and immediately dividing into an anterior branch entering the head and ramifying under skull and a posterior tube lying beside the main bladder to its posterior end.