Possibly the most abundant living shark (Ref. 247). An inshore and offshore dogfish of the continental and insular shelf and upper slopes (Ref. 247, 11230). Usually near the bottom, but also in midwater and at the surface (Ref. 26346). Often found in enclosed bays and estuaries (Ref. 247). Reported to enter freshwater (Ref. 11980) but cannot survive there for more than a few hours (Ref. 247). Schools mainly segregated by size and sex; mixed schools also reported (Ref. 247). Growth is slow. At sexual maturity, males are 60-70 cm long, females 75-90 cm (Ref. 35388). Gestation period is 2 years (Ref. 36731). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205), with 1 to 20 young in a litter (Ref. 247). The only species of horned sharks that can inflict toxins with its tail. Utilized for human consumption, liver oil, vitamins, sand paper, leather, fertilizer, etc. (Ref. 247, 27436).