Occur in freshwater streams and brackish shore areas. Inhabit still or gently flowing freshwater streams over rock, mud or gravel, a bottom-dwelling fish. Usually found near aquatic vegetation or woody debris. During rainy periods, may migrate downstream into estuaries, but they normally frequent fresh water. Relatively sedentary species, spending majority of their time stationary on the bottom or among weeds waiting for prey. Breed in fresh water, as juveniles have been collected from the upper reaches of rivers, including impoundments. Both adults and juveniles have venomous dorsal, anal and pelvic spines and therefore should not be handled (Ref. 44894).